SPANISH GRAMMAR

Pretérito perfecto simple

It expresses past activities already completed in time that has already passed.

Conjugation I (hablar):

singularplural
1habléhablamos
2hablastehablasteis
3hablóhablaron

Conjugation II (vender):

singularplural
1vendívendimos
2vendistevendisteis
3vendióvendieron

Conjugation III (vivir):

singularplural
1vivívivimos
2vivistevivisteis
3vivióvivieron

The forms above are for regular verbs.

Spelling peculiarities in conjugation I: in the 1st person singular (only) the spelling of the verbs changes in verbs ending in -car, -gar, -guar, -zar: these endings change to -qué, -gué, -güé, -cé: marcar - marqué, marcaste, marcó, entregar - entregué, entregaste, entregó, empezar - empecé, empezaste, empezó.

In conjugation II and III, in turn, if in the 1st person the final -í is placed after the vowel (because the ending of infinitivo -er or -ir is also after the vowel): - in forms of the 3rd person singular, we change -í into -yó, and in the 3rd person plural, the ending is -yeron, - in other forms the accent is kept over í. The exceptions are verbs in -uir, such as atribuir and destruir, which lose this accent.

An example of this: caer.

singularplural
1caícaímos
2caístecaísteis
3cayócayeron

Czasowniki na -uir:

singularplural
1destruídestruimos
2destruistedestruisteis
3destruyódestruyeron

There are many irregular forms.

Pretérito perfecto simple (pretérito indefinido) - irregular verbs.

Verbs ser and ir have identical forms :

singularplural
1fuifuimos
2fuistefuisteis
3fuefueron

A number of irregular verbs have the -e ending in 1 person, like the form estuve from estar. The conjugation then looks like this : -e, -iste, -o, -imos, -isteis, -ieron.

singularplural
1estuveestuvimos
2estuvisteestuvisteis
3estuvoestuvieron

Similarly, other verbs in pretérito indefinido: haber - hube, tener - tuve, poder - pude, poner - puse, saber - supe, venir - vine, querer - quise, andar - anduve, caber - cupe. The verb hacer has a spelling peculiarity in the 3rd person (hice, hiciste, hizo, hicimos, hicisteis, hicieron).

Similar are the verbs with the singular -je in the 1st person. The conjugation looks then: -e, -iste, -o, -imos, -isteis, -eron. These include decir (dije), traer (traje) and the verbs ending in -ducir like producir (produje) and conducir (conduje).

singularplural
1dijedijimos
2dijistedijisteis
3dijodijeron

Verbs dar and ver have specific forms.

singularplural
1didimos
2distedisteis
3diodieron
singularplural
1vivimos
2vistevisteis
3viovieron

Pretérito indefinido - verbs with vowel change o: u and e: i

The verbs of the type dormir, sentir and pedir change the vowel in the 3rd person singular and plural. The groups of these verbs are discussed here: Partially irregular verbs . These include, inter alia:
dormir, morir (change from o to u)
sentir, mentir, digerir, advertir (change from e to i)
pedir, elegir, medir, gemir, rendir, vestir (same).

singularplural
1dormídormimos
2dormistedormisteis
3durmiódurmieron
singularplural
1pedipedimos
2pedistepedisteis
3pidiópidieron

Put the verbs in the 3rd person pretérito indefinido (pretérito perfecto simple)

cantar - cantó
hablar -
comer -
vivir -
ser -
estar -
ir -
hacer -
venir -
tener -
dar -
decir -
permitir -
mandar -
tomar -
volver -
dormir -
morir -
conducir -
comenzar -
pensar -
pedir -
sentir -
mentir -
caer -
ver -
poder -
poner -
saber -
querer -
beber -
empezar -
llamar -

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