Polish grammar

Pronunciation: Oral vowels:

a – pronounced like short a in “father”: mama

e – pronounced like short e in “red”: pole

i – like long i in “sleep”, but pronounced short: wino

o – is pronounced short, like aw in "dawn": tona, morze

ó – like short u: mól, pól

u – is pronounced like oo in "mood", but short: duży, lutnia

y - very open i: ryba

The pronunciation of u and ó is identical in Polish.

Before a vowel, i is pronounced as j or just denotes the softness of the consonant: piasek, ciało.

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