Italian grammar

Pronunciation of consonants

Most Italian consonant letters are pronounced like in English. In particular, this applies to the letters: a b d f k l m n p r t u.

Pronunciation of consonants:

c is pronounced before a, o, u and other consonants as English k: amico
before e, i is pronounced like ch in chair: cestino, Cesare
cc we pronounce it as doubled English k + k before a, o, u: bocca
before e, i it is pronounced as doubled English ch : cacce
ch is pronounced k: che, china
g before e, i is pronounced like English j in jam : giro, gesso
: in other situations we pronounce it as English g
gg in front of the e, i is pronounced like doubled j + j: viaggio
gh is pronounced like g: ghetto
gli is pronounced as ly: figlio; There are only a few exceptions to this rule: glycerin, glycemia, glycol, glycine
gn pronounced like ny: signore, signora
h is not pronounced: ho, hai
qu pronounced like qu in quit : quadro, questo
s is generally pronounced as s; as z it is pronounced only before voiced consonants: d, d, g, v, l, r, m, n and often between vowels
sci is pronounced shi: sciita
sce i scie is pronounced as she: scene, scienza
sch pronounced sk: schioppo
v is pronounced as v: via, vada
z is pronounced ts or dz; at the beginning of a word mostly as dz, in the middle of a word a little more often as dz
zz pronounced ts + ts or dz + dz; like dzdz most often in connections like –izzare, -izzazione: organizzare.

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