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SPANISH VOCABULARY

Most common Spanish words.

The most frequent Spanish words according to Real Academia Española:

Articles:
el, la, lo, las, los = the
un, una = a, an, one
The form of the article depends on the number and the gender of the noun. Examples: el año = the year, la parte = the part, los años = the years, las partes = the parts, un año = a year, una parte = a part
Nouns: el año = year
Examples of other nouns : la casa = the house, la parte = the part, names of persons : Juan (John), Ana (Ann), Madrid, Argentina Verbs:
ser = to be (forms es = is, son = they are, ser = to be)
haber = to have (forms perfect tenses) (most frequent form : ha = has)
estar = to be (most frequent form: está = is)

Prepositions:
de = of, from : la parte de un año, la casa de Juan = Juan's house / the house of Juan, Juan es de Madrid = Juan is from Madrid
en = in : en un año, en Argentina, Juan está en Madrid
a = to : Juan va a Madrid = Juan goes to Madrid
por = by, through : escrito (written) por Juan
con = with : voy a Madrid con Juan, Juan está en Madrid con Ana
para = for : para Juan
sin = without : Ana está en Madrid sin Juan
sobre = over : sobre la casa
entre = between: entre Juan y Ana
hasta = to, up to
desde = from, since : desde la casa
Forms of prepositions de and a with the article:
del = de + el : la parte del año
al = a + el

Conjunctions:
que = that : sé (I know) que Juan está en Madrid
y = and : Juan y Ana como = as, like : Juan es como Ana
o = or : Juan o Ana
pero = but : Juan está en Madrid, pero Ana está en Barcelona
cuando = when : Juan está en Madrid, cuando Ana está en Barcelona

Pronouns:
se = oneself, himself, herself, itself, themselves (very many verbs are used with se in Spanish: él se lava - he washes, él se va - he leaves )
lo = it, him (él lo lava - he washes it, Juan lo ve - Juan sees it)
le = him, to him
me = me : Juan me ve = Juan sees me
todo = all : todo el año, todos los años

Possessive and demonstrative adjectives: su (its plural: sus) = his, her, its, their : su casa = his / her / their house, sus casas, su casa está en Madrid
mi = my : mi casa, mi parte, mi casa está en Madrid este / esta / esto = this (three forms of the word): esto es una casa = this is a house, este año = this year, esta casa = this house

Adverbs:
no = no, not : Juan no está en Barcelona
más = more : más años - more years
si = so : eso es si importante (this is so important)
ya = already : Juan ya está en su casa
también = also, too : Juan también está en su casa
muy = very : es muy importante

Numeral: dos = two : dos casas, dos años

More verb forms are very frequent. For the sake of quick learning the language, it's good to memorize them:
Forms of ser = to be :
es = is : Juan es de Madrid
son = (they are) : Juan y Ana son de Madrid
It may be too early to introduce the past forms, but these forms belong to the most frequent words in Spanish, so it's better to learn to recognize them :
fue = was : eso fue importante
era = was : eso era importante
Forms of haber = to have: ha = has, había = had
eso ha sido importante = it has been important (sido means been)
eso había sido importante = it had been important)
había means also "there was" : había una casa en Madrid = there was a house in Madrid



Exercise.

Translate a word into English.

  1. año
    year
    month
    day
    one

  2. ser
    to have
    to be
    to take
    to smile

  3. también
    also
    never
    always
    inside

  4. muy
    human
    man
    only
    very

  5. en
    from
    take
    in
    lost

  6. con
    female
    inside
    some
    with

  7. haber
    to have
    to walk
    to give
    to run

  8. es
    walks
    is
    goes
    runs

  9. ya
    suddenly
    already
    to say
    immediately

  10. está
    has
    does
    already
    is

  11. mi
    my
    your
    her
    she

  12. para
    in
    for
    above
    on

  13. este
    this
    I
    he
    she

  14. cuando
    year
    inside
    dogs
    when

  15. a
    from
    inside
    to
    yes

  16. su
    in
    our
    cats
    his

  17. estar
    to be
    to walk
    to give
    to run

  18. son
    (they) have
    (they) are
    (they) do
    (they) make

  19. todo
    such
    all
    between
    inside